|TOPIC: Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc……… Disaster and Disaster management (paper 1 & 3)|
- Explaining the phenomena of heat wave, Suggest the measures that should be taken to cope up with the related disaster.
Heat waves ,as a natural disaster, rank first in the number of casualties per year around the globe. India generally experience heat waves in pre –monsoon period i.e around March –May months.
What is heat wave?
Heat wave is considered if maximum temperature of a station reaches at least 40°C or more for Plains, 37°C or more for coastal stations and at least 30°C or more for Hilly regions.
Cause of the phenomenon:
- Heat waves occur when high pressure is observed on the ground.
- In such a high-pressure system, air from upper levels of our atmosphere is pulled toward the ground, where it becomes compressed and increases in temperature.
- The high-pressure inhibits winds, making them faint-to-nonexistent. Because the high-pressure system also prevents clouds from entering the region, sunlight can become punishing, heating up the system even more and it become more lethal.
|Following criteria is used to declare Heat waves in India
Based on Departure from Normal
· Heat Wave: Departure from normal is 4.5°C to 6.4°C
· Severe Heat Wave: Departure from normal is >6.4°C
Based on Actual Maximum Temperature (for plains only)
· Heat Wave: When actual maximum temperature ≥ 45°C
· Severe Heat Wave: When actual maximum temperature ≥47°C
Effect of the Heat waves:
Human health: High humidity and elevated nighttime temperatures appear to be key ingredients in causing heat-related illness and mortality.Heat stress and heat stroke are common in older and vulnerable section of society.
Agriculture: High temperatures at night can be particularly damaging to agriculture. Some crops require cool night temperatures, and heat stress for livestock rises when animals are unable to cool off at night.
Energy: increase electricity demand for cooling and at the same time, higher temperatures lower the ability of transmission lines to carry power, possibly leading to electricity reliability.
The way forward:
- Heat action plans to respond to extreme weather by the local bodies.
- Adopt the policy suggested by National Commission on Farmers for wider adoption of both rainwater harvesting and aquifer recharge, in order to provide irrigation for small farmers.
- These messages of staying adequately hydrated, wearing suitable clothing including headgear, and creating shade in public places and weather alerts can be disseminated through television, mobile phone messaging and social media platforms
- Using green roofs, improved building materials, and shaded building construction to reduce urban heat island effect.
|TOPIC: Social empowerment, communalism…
Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States
Issues relating to poverty and hunger. (Paper 1 & 2)
- Critically examine the implementation of direct benefit transfer scheme like NYAY(Nyuntum Aay Yojna) for poverty alleviation in India.
Recently an election manifesto released by a political party promised to transfer Rs 72,000 every year to the country’s 5 crore poorest families constituting a fifth of its population. It is hailed as an effort towards poverty alleviation in India.
Is it really a game changer ?
- It can be a game changer for the political party concerned but will it reduce poverty level is easier said than done.
- According to World Bank criteria of $1.90 a day, around 40 % of population lives below poverty line i.e they are not able to get even basic needs of their daily life.
- It will cost around 3.6 lakhs crore on exchequer which can be financed either by cutting other welfare schemes like health, PDS scheme, MNREGA, housing, etc. or by burdening the middle or high income group of the country.
- It will be mainly consumption expenditure which will not create any assets or capital for the long run development of the country.
- As the people will get money , their tendency to do the work will reduce and there may erupt a crisis of labour force for Indian market and it will increase the wage labour in the country which hampers the growth of the Startup or seed industry.
- With increase in demand , the inflation will also increase in long run which will again push them below the poverty line as poverty is a relative term.
- Moreover, the poor may not always remain poor, just as the person who isn’t in the bottom 20 per cent today could well slip into that tomorrow.
Providing direct cash to the poor account would reduce the absolute poverty level for shorter period but it will not reduce relative or Multi- dimensional poverty in India.
Inspite of spending such a huge amount of the consumption scheme, the scheme like MNREGA which pay for the work done and create capital for the country.
The time period of 100 days guaranteed in MNREGA along with the daily wage should be increased .Agro based industry which require minimum skill should be encouraged which will help the poor section most.
|Time Line of Poverty Estimation in India
· YK Alagh Committee (1979): Based on nutrional value
· Lakdawala Committee(1993): Based Calorie intake based on consumption expenditure
· Tendulkar Committee(2004-05): Based on daily per capita expenditure of RS 27 and RS 33 in rural and urban areas, respectively
· Rangarajan Committee(2012): Based on daily per capita expenditure of RS 32 and RS 47, in rural and urban areas respectively